FLOSS development and innovation

FLOSS development
and innovationBenklereconmic theory / influencehow we structure our production
("forms  ...Marketsmain driver = moneyHierarchies / firmCommons Based Peer Production (CBPP)
(co ...produce what? production of information  ...two characteristics1. decentralization - instead of a centr ...2. social cues and motivation instead of ...three structural attributesModularity - Object for PP must be modul ...Granularity - The task of a module (task ...Low-cost integrationquality control to weed out poor
and mal ...mechanism for integration
of modules at  ...ex: CVS, Subversiongain over market and firm1. self-identification/self-selection fo ...2. The larger number of participants and ...examplesGNU/Linux (software)Wikipedia (content)web search engines (yahoo and google) (i ...SETI@home, folding, filesharing, skype   ...physical goods with excess capacityPeer production is emerging as informati ...The object of production - information - ...Physical captial cost of information pro ...Humans have variable creative talent/ski ...Cheap and more effective communication
i ...If these conditions are in place, the co ...limitation1. Communication and integration cost2. "Grainularity issue" - fine grained c ...3. Duplication of efforts - redundancy
C ...Still, too little practical research on  ...Usually exists in combination of market/ ...commons-based = no one uses exclusive ri ...Why do people do it? Indirect awards.extrinsic - enhancing reputation, develo ...intrinsic - satisfying psychological nee ...How?legal devices like GPLsocial normstechnological constrains on "antisocial" ...no organization costs,
no transaction co ...no "tradegy of the commons"because peers non-rivalmay be hierarchical ("onion model")?redundancybetween projectschoose between patchesboth synergy and competitiongood for creativityerror correctionCBPP a "new" production model?historically: noex: folk mythsfirst time in a global networked wayexplain a form of organizing productionresearch question: how coordination and  ...a good outcome of CBPP would be an ecolo ...StallmanCristal clear argumentationMust do /some/ compromisesUse an proprietary editor firstLike use violence in self defenceGNU GPLlegal documentexpression of the philosophyfour freedomsfreedom 0: The freedom to run the softwa ...freedom 1: The freedom to help yourself. ...freedom 2: The freedom to help your neig ...freedom 3: The freedom to help your comm ...freedomYou cant create a community if you 
don' ...ONLY free software
Bruce Perence: free s ...draws similarities with folkloreSource code = recipeWe risk loosing our freedomnot free beerfree speechfreedoms important to remove obstaclesthe philosopherFree Software FoundationRaymondUsed to traditional development.
Got a h ...two software development
styles/processe ...cathedrallong release intervalshierarchicalthight specificationsmall project groupsmore people = more coordination = high m ...bazaarBenkler - there is more order than Raymo ...better technology = lower coster for coo ...self-selection for what they want to domotivationcreditreputationlearningtrustmodularized structure of the software to ...peer review processneed "critical" mass for a sustainable c ...access to source codedecentralizedusers are developers and developers are  ...short release-intervals - "release early ...the software is never finishedorganizationsome social norms for how people behavescharismaInternet8. the product defines/influences the pr ..."web of trust"reputation award"tragedy of the commons"free access and unrestricted demand for
 ...Joseph Schumpeter"creative destruction"crises necessarypeople have to think differentlyis this what we see today with CBPP vs.  ...CBPP = "star example" of this"tradegy of the anti-commons"to fight the changeex: record companies fight the fileshari ...QuestionsWhat is free software and open source?
( ...Something licenses related (ex: GPL)Something principles related (ex: FSF)Open Source definitionMoving from software tocontenthardwareservicesdistinguish betweenproduct
"What is the product. What is pr ...process
"What kind of infrastructure or  ...Is it useful?
(For whom?)For the individualFor the societyBothWhy are they doing it?
(What are the inc ...How can we reduce the frictions?legal frictionssocial frictionsmarket frictiontechnology frictionDo not need to create incentives - only  ...Is OSS innovative?or more/just puzzle solving?not radical changes, no "breakdowns"incremental and slowOSS is just about stabilization?
"make s ...distinguish between1. user percieved innovation (text to GU ...2. devloper based (in the code/algorithm ...3. how you organize your work / the proc ...What are the commons?BenklerHappens when the resources they use or
w ...Everything taken into or out from the co ...LessigWhat is peer-production?The peer-element is equally important as ...Where does the term comes from?A: Organization isn't based on price or  ...What is the integration mechanism (in CB ...The costs/the barriers for CBPPThe benefints/gains of integrationIntegration is a mechanism that makes po ...When can we have CBPP?WordlistProperty rightFor physical thingsRivarlyCan not enjoy it at the same time
ex: si ..."Real" propertyFor intangible thingNon-rivalryDo not have to compete with anyone to en ...Intellectual Property (IP)
("lumps toghe ...very conservinglimited in time
(life of the author +70  ...copyrightcovers the details of expression of a wo ...happens "automatically"last long - upto 150 yearscovers copying onlysoftware patentsonly cover ideas and the use of ideasissued by a patent office in response
to ...costs moneylasts 20 yearsis an absolute monoploy on using an ideaDigital Rights Managment (DRM)copyleft"..a general method for making a program ...LessigEric von Hippelinnovation lead by "lead users"both users and companies10-15% av the users (but domain specific ...they see a need and wants to change itthey want to improve the products they h ...they are advancedordinary users are not interested into m ...ex: "extreme" sports equipment, surgical ...thay have much to gain from making impro ...innovationdo it yourselfcost of organizationcost of equipments etc.let others do itcontract costmonitoring costsspecification etc.adapting policy to user innovation?not grant IPR if the user or
firm innova ...not built on Benklermain idea - there is people outside your ...software development modelsmodelswaterfallagilerationale unified processXPrapid prototypingincremental modelsscrumthese models assumes that your're buildi ...central planningtop down organizationproblems of communications:1. How to get the requirements correct2. How the developers communicate (coord ...in an enviroment where 1. How to deal with complexity2. How to deal with uncertaintyEben MoglenMoglens law: Not to create incentives
bu ...IPRGuidelinesfromFree Software FoundationDebian groupOpen Source InitiativeOpen SourceStallman: "OSS consider only the practic ...Why?free = cheap, sloppy, free of charge etc ...FSF attack on IPMore towards businessthere is a lot more to FLOSS than
just o ...Do the license conform to these freedoms ...
FLOSS development
and innovation
how we structure our production
("forms of production")